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horizontal organizational structure

boekhouding en boekhouding. This is known as open allocation, and means that employees can switch to another team at any time, no questions asked; all desks are on wheels to make this easy. Also, regardless of the ideals held by a company using a flat structure, it is inevitable that informal hierarchies will develop. none. Instead, each business has to consider its own circumstances. The horizont… Centralized, decentralized, linear, horizontal, traditional, matrix… there are several organizational structure examples, and each one is better suited to a particular business type and process model.. By elevating the level of responsibility of baseline employees and eliminating layers of middle management, comments and feedback reach all personnel involved in decisions more quickly. Delayering plans may aim to secure these benefits, although potential risks include undermining employee's confidence in their managers and putting the remaining managers under greater pressure.[3]. A flat organization (also known as horizontal organization) has an organizational structure with few or no levels of middle management between staff and executives. However, due to the fact that significant responsibilities are given to the team members themselves, if a team collectively arrives at the view that the procedures it is following are outdated, or could be improved, it may be able to change them. An absence of middle managers does not preclude the adoption and retention of mandatory work procedures, including quality assurance procedures. Author of the FLOOR 21 series of novels, he also has experience as a freelance writer in the areas of finance, real estate, and marketing. A “vertical” company is known for having a large staff of middle managers between the CEO and the front line. Sales, accounting, shipping and customer service can all … Tall and flat organizations differ based on how many levels of management are present in the organization and how much control managers are endowed with. [9] Generally the term of a group contributor at Valve is at most one project, after which time they (voluntarily) rotate back to being an individual contributor. DESIGNING ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE: SPECIALIZATION & COORDINATION 16 The Coca-Cola Company 201 0 The Coca-Cola Company realizes that a divisional structure gives the organization the best opportunity to react to the changes in its uncertain environment, but also allow it … Organizational structure affects organizational action and provides the foundation on which … However, some organizations do not take on middle managers even as they become larger, remaining extremely flat. The literature identifies a wide variety of U.S. organizational structures and approaches to integrating care across providers. "Exploration of Equality and Processes of Non-Hierarchical Groups." Within a horizontal organizational structure, managers will have a higher set of responsibilities, and more direct reports than a typical manager. Quickly create a Company Organization Chart or an Org Chart for different types of Organizational Structure. When it comes to discussing the advantages of horizontal organizational structure, the benefits are typically limited to smaller, less complex organizations. When an organization decides to no longer place value on a person's position, Baker suggests that new hierarchies based on personality type, skill set, and communication style can emerge. The matrix organization structure crossed these two ways of organizing (Galbraith, 2009; Kuprenas, 2003). With rapid technological advances sweeping the auto… There can be problems with flat organizational structures because they can be difficult to implement and hard to conceptualize, particularly in large, traditional businesses. We group these structures in terms of horizontal and vertical integration and describe how they vary in terms of … Organizational structure is a * Corresponding author. In this type of business, there is little or no differentiation. Such changes may, in some cases, require the approval of executive management and/or customers (consider, for example, a digital agency producing bespoke websites for corporate clients). Explain the Hybrid Organization Structure, The Disadvantages of Tall Types of Organizational Structure, Describe Each of the Three Major Types of Organizational Structure, The Relationship Between Organizational Design & Decision-Making Processes, Hierarchical Structure Used in a Modern Organization, Forbes: The 5 Types Of Organizational Structures: Part 3, Flat Organizations, Business Dictionary: Horizontal Organization. may also require a more conventional structure. 2015. Since the chain of command in a horizontal organizational structure is small, communication is often faster and more effective. Businesses? There have been many proposals over the years, from radical to moderate. Entrepreneur, 33(1), 69-70. It doesn’t have many chains of command. Since nobody has to report to anyone, inexperienced and less reliable employees can cause a breakdown in operations. The foremost example of a company with self-managing teams is Valve, which also has rotating, not permanent, team leaders - which Valve terms "group contributors", in recognition of the fact that contributing individually and leading at Valve form a spectrum, not a binary dichotomy. Australian researchers Dunford, Bramble and Littler note that delayering in an organisation may also lead to down-sizing: "[a]lthough delayering need not involve down-sizing - because it is possible to redefine the position of existing staff within the new flatter structure - the two often coincide". What Are the Differences Between Flat & Hierarchical Organizations? An organization's structure refers to the nature of the distribution of the units and positions within it, also to the nature of the relationships among those units and positions. For example, one manager might be in charge of many engineers, but those engineers may work on different projects and therefore report to their product managers as well. This page was last edited on 9 December 2020, at 02:55. In flat organizations, the number of people directly supervised by each manager is large, and the number of people in the chain of command above each person is small. An organization's structure refers to the nature of the distribution of the units and positions within it, also to the nature of the relationships among those units and positions. Horizontal Differentiation in Organizational Theory. So, download now—manage the structure within a school, business, hospital, and more! Very small businesses may lack middle managers because there are too few staff to justify hiring middle managers; in this type of organization, the business owner or the CEO may perform some of the functions performed by middle managers in larger organizations. A "strong form" of flat organization is an organization with no middle management at all. that an effective HR department could resolve these issues within a flat organization. Transforming a highly hierarchical organization into a flat organization is known as delayering. Individual vice-presidents direct the activities of the staff below them according to specific lines of business. Maybe it's time to get off the horizontal/vertical see-saw and think differently about your organization. Qamcom Research and Technology, a Swedish specialist company with 125 employees active in the area of communication, radar and automotive systems (40% PhDs). Finally, a matrix structure is one in which employees have multiple people to report to, such as both divisional and project managers, as well as multiple reporting lines. If these hierarchies don't get acknowledged, it is much more difficult to address the emergence of a new hierarchy because they remain implicit or undetected. If you are having troubles with your research paper, I might have a solution for you. In scrum, an agile framework, team members assign work to be done among themselves, either by free choice or by consensus. Journal of Organisational Transformation & Social Change 12, no. The horizontal organization has many types. [7] This can cause conflict with people whose career path expectations include a promotion, which may not be available within the organization due to its flat structure. [citation needed] Certain financial responsibilities[which?] [15], Mark Henricks, a business journalist and a critic of flat organization, argues that "when you have too little hierarchy, decisions don't get made or are made wrongly by employees who lack experience, accountability, or motivation to do the work of the missing managers".[16]. They pursue success, grow as individuals and make the business grow thanks to their ambition and endeavors. The flat organization model promotes employee involvement through decentralized decision-making processes. More commonly called a flat structure, flat organization or even a “flatarchy,” the horizontal organization is one where democracy tends to rule the day . This structure is generally possible only in smaller organizations or individual units within larger organizations. Baker, Suzanne J. Also eliminating certain departments from the payroll means saving money. In a vertical company—which was most the most common business model in organizations for the much of the mid- to late-20th century—lines of authority branch outward from the top down like a tree’s roots. All rights reserved. Despite the fact that these people are seen as senior, there is no formal structure to which employees can be held accountable. Privacy Notice/Your California Privacy Rights. These types revolve around the nature of the groups of sub-organizations within the firm that will take power from the older, vertical style of management. Besides the flat structure, there are three other alternatives commonly used in organizing a business’s operations. An organizational structure defines how activities such as task allocation, coordination, and supervision are directed toward the achievement of organizational aims.. Sales departments and customer service departments are only two examples of how an organization divides its operations in a functional business structure, with each department having its own reporting lines by which they are held accountable. Results. While a manager in self-managing teams determines the overall purpose or goal of the team, the team is at liberty to manage the methods by which to achieve that goal. There is no one best organizational structure. Drawing on Jo Freeman's famous essay The Tyranny of Structurelessness, Klint Finley has argued that "bossless" companies like Valve might suffer from problems related to the appropriate handling of grievances, the formation of informal cliques, the "soft power" of popular employees, unprofessional and sexist attitudes, and lack of workplace diversity. Unlike vertical and matrix organizational structures, a horizontal organizational structure has fewer layers, normally two or three. The third layers are team members supervised by the managers or team leaders in the second layer. About the Author A flat organization (also known as horizontal organization) has an organizational structure with few or no levels of middle management between staff and executives. There are many ways to present the Organizational Chart. "The Advantages of Flat Organizational Structure", "Gain and Pain: The Effects of Australian Public Sector Restructuring", "Valve: How going boss-free empowered the games-maker", "The Fourth Qualification For Future Companies", "Harassment claims make startup GitHub grow up", "Why Workers Can Suffer in Bossless Companies Like GitHub", "There's a War on Middle Management and Tesla Just Joined It", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Flat_organization&oldid=993161532, Articles with unsourced statements from September 2013, All articles with specifically marked weasel-worded phrases, Articles with specifically marked weasel-worded phrases from September 2014, Articles with specifically marked weasel-worded phrases from November 2015, All articles that may contain original research, Articles that may contain original research from October 2015, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. Very early organizational structures were often based either on product or function (Oliveira & Takahashi, 2012). Many start-up businesses use a horizontal org structure before they grow large enough to build out different departments, but some organizations maintain this structure since it encourages less supervision and more involvement from all employees. Dec 20, 2017 - Free Organizational Chart Template for Excel. If executive management is not involved in the decision, or merely rubber-stamps it, this might be an example of consensus decision-making or workplace democracy at the level of a team - or group of teams, if multiple teams are involved in the decision. Organizational structure is a set of methods dividing the task to determined duties and coordinates them (Monavarian, Asgari, & Ashna, 2007). Similar to a functional structure, each brand within the company maintains its own reporting lines. The complex nature of this type of reporting makes it difficult to implement in already complex organizations. As such, in the purest horizontal organizations, there are no job titles, managers, executives or seniority. The second layer contains managers or team leaders who report to the business owner. Within the structure of the organization, projects can only be started by employees who know how to take the initiative. This works well for small c… The characteristics of the corporate structure determine some aspects of General Motors capabilities. The scrum master role in scrum is not a management role as such, but is a role that involves helping remove obstacles to progress and ensuring that the basic scrum framework is adhered to by all parties, inside and outside the team - both aspects of the role being more akin to facilitation than to top-down micromanagement. While a flat structure may be appropriate when a business is smaller, a larger organization may need the more rigid functional structure with established accountability systems in order to perform optimally. Jason spent a lifetime traveling before making his home in Houston, where he worked on his doctoral degree at the University of Houston. Horizontal organizational structure examples include those in which communication is constantly moving between all parts of the organization and all members of the organization are seen as equal. A matrix organizational structure attempts to combine both vertical and horizontal structure and results in workers reporting to more than one manager. One of them is the Horizontal Organizational Chart: the parts of the diagram are arranged from left to right, or from right to left. Suzanne Baker argues that new power dynamics can emerge that undermine the equality afforded by a non-hierarchical context. What Benefits Are Gained in Adopting a Matrix Approach in Terms of Organizational Structure? Horizontal and Vertical Structures: The Dynamics of Organization in Higher Education By: Richard P. Keeling, Ric Underhile and Andrew F. Wall The organization of institutions of higher education has been seen as operating with ambiguous purposes in vertically oriented structures that are only loosely connected (Cohen and March 1986; Weick 1976; Mintzberg 1979). Keywords: Organizational Structure, Flat Organizations, hypercompetitive, vertical organizational structure, flat ... • Horizontal career path that cross functions • Broadly defined jobs • General job descriptions • Flexible boundaries between jobs and units This enables employees to make decisions quickly and independently. A horizontal organization, also known as a flat organization, is one in which there is little-to-no emphasis on hierarchy and seniority. [4] Some companies[who?] Gap Inc., for instance, operates Gap, Old Navy and Banana Republic, with all three brands forming the same company. In this post, we’ll analyze and exemplify 5 of them, so you can understand their advantages and disadvantages, and choose which one to employ in your organization. After a time, if all goes well then the company will grow. [14] However, some of these topics are the responsibility of human-resources departments in larger organizations, so it is possible[original research?] When a company starts off, the only employees may be just the founder and a part-time assistant. Other examples of companies with self-managing teams include the following: In technology, agile development involves teams self-managing to a large extent (though agile development is commonly still practiced within a hierarchical organization, which means that certain types of decisions such as hiring, firing, and pay raises remain the prerogative of managers). It’s almost impossible to use this model for larger companies with many projects and employees. These problems are particularly pronounced among larger organizations. Expected response to customer feedback becomes more rapid. theorize that flat organizations become more traditionally hierarchical when they begin to be geared towards productivity. General Motors must include flexibility as a defining factor to maintain competence and resilience despite tough competition from other firms like Toyota (Read: Toyotas Organizational Structure and Its Characteristics). Horizontal/ Flat Organizational Structure. Horizontal organizational structure is a form of managing workers in which decision-making is spread among workers along horizontal lines, as opposed to a hierarchical or pyramidal management structure. A horizontal organization, also known as a flat organization, is one in which there is little-to-no emphasis on hierarchy and seniority. [9] Prof. Cliff Oswick from Cass Business School, who has studied Valve and other examples of "non-leadership", believes that Valve works because it hires high-calibre people who are a good fit for the leaderless environment, and because it was founded as a flat organization from the outset, so that new hires always knew what they were getting into. What Is the Most Widely Used Approach to Organizational Structure in U.S. Agile frameworks such as scrum have also begun being used in non-technology companies and organizations. Jupiterimages/Brand X Pictures/Getty Images. Richard Dunford, Tom Bramble and Craig R. Littler. An [10] However, because new ideas may require significant resources, someone with a new idea may need to persuade a number of their coworkers to join them in order to create a new team and reach the necessary "critical mass" for the new idea to come to fruition. © 2019 www.azcentral.com. Our handy samples 100% customizable in various applications, including Mac Pages and Google Docs. Having reached a critical size, organizations can retain a streamlined structure but cannot keep a completely flat manager-to-staff relationship without affecting productivity. An example often used to exemplify flat structure is Valve, a software developer in which employees can freely move between projects and initiate projects of their own. Getting To Both/And So argues Chris Fussell's … [10] However, he warns that the peer-review-based stack ranking system Valve uses for determining employee remuneration, might become problematic if in the future Valve becomes short of cash.[10]. This is an organizational chart type mostly adopted by small companies and start-ups in their early stage. Moreover, managers in a flat organization rely less on guidance from superiors because the number of superiors above the manager is limited. However, if not planned well or poorly realised, the horizontal structure may transform your organisation into a dysfunctional and unorganised setting. A CEO, president or founder will likely head the company, and then she'll possibly have one or a few managers under her or maybe no managers at all . [2] A manager in a flat organization possesses more responsibility than a manager in a tall organization because there is a greater number of individuals immediately below them who are dependent on direction, help, and support. The Definitions of Horizontal and Vertical Organizations. But if you learn how to delegate responsibilities properly and create a transparent atmosphere for communication, your business will grow and prosper. Thus a well-trained workforce can be more productive by directly getting involved in the decision-making process. [2], Empirical evidence from Ghiselli and Johnson suggests that the amount of independence that managers in flat organizations possess as a result of the flat organizational structure satisfies many of their needs in terms of autonomy and self-realization. If their financial stability depends on the outcome of their work, they simply become more driven. New and existing employees will need to know their responsibilities and who they report to. Organizational structure is the framework of the relations on jobs, systems, operating process, people and groups making efforts to achieve the goals. Though there are some benefits to a horizontal approach, there are also several problems with a flat organizational structure. Inevitably, those with greater experience tend to be informally viewed as seniors even within a flat structure. 2: 138-158. Business Source Complete, EBSCOhost (accessed November 3, 2015). Henricks, M. (2005). This means a marketing manager may have designers, product people, support staff and others who … In the smallest and least complex type of business, all tasks might be performed by just one or two people. In this regard, corporate managers must ensure that the structural characteristics of the business are aligned with strategic goals. [9] Valve also allows team members to work on whatever they find interesting. An organization's structure dictates who is in a position of authority, how work is divided and how employees are … This is also an organization in which power is distributed more evenly among people. A divisional structure occurs when a company divides itself between brands. An organization with self-managing teams who organize their own work without the need for a middle manager or supervisor above the team may meet or closely approximate this model. Unlike the vertical organizational structure where emphasis is … If you need an organogram for a small business, then consider our Horizontal Organizational Chart Templates. The Organizational Chart is a diagram that shows the structure of the organization and the relationships of its parts. The top position of the structure is the owner of the business. Horizontal organizational structure in an organization places emphasis on the collective goal of the company. [2] The idea behind flat organizations is that well-trained workers will be more productive when they are more directly involved in the decision-making process rather than closely supervised by many layers of management. Er wordt waarde gehecht aan openheid, samenwerking en samenwerking. Teamwork. They usually have no middle management, and the executives are directly in touch with the staff. The most common type of organizational structure, a functional structure, is one in which the organization is divided based on specialties. The most important thing about this structure is that many levels of middle management are eliminated. Horizontal or flat organizational structure is suitable for organizations that have the least number of levels of hierarchy. As an organization grows, the lack of structure in a flat approach can make operations confusing. [5], Frank Ostroff, in The Horizontal Organisation, argues that the horizontal structure "delivers value to customers".[6]. However, alternative "horizontal" career paths may be available, such as developing greater expertise in a role or mastery of a craft, and/or receiving pay raises for loyalty.[8]. A company would not have to give a raise or promotion, based on service length but on greater productivity. The philosophy behind this form of management is that a collaborative model improves morale, productivity and creativity. What Is a Horizontal Structure? It is the employees who are responsible for winning support, including funding and personnel, to work on the projects they’ve conceptualized. People cherishing freedom and the opportunity for personal growth feel the most comfortable in horizontal management structures. When a business begins to employ thousands of employees, it becomes less feasible to allow each employee to make their own decisions regarding what they want to work on. [10], Valve's co-founder has admitted that it has issues with failing to catch bad decisions early on due to a lack of internal controls, due to its lack of managers. Falling Flat?. If you’ve had a job, you likely worked in a functional organizational structure.The functional structure is based on an organization being divided up into smaller groups with specific tasks or roles. A horizontal or flat organizational structure fits companies with few levels between upper management and staff-level employees. Advantages & Disadvantages of Different Organizational Structure Types. De horizontale organisatiestructuur kan helpen om de arbeidssatisfactie te verhogen, omdat de nadruk ligt op het creëren van een inclusieve werkcultuur en -omgeving. In a flat structure, people are not told what to work on, but instead choose what projects to participate in. [1] Tall and flat organizations differ based on how many levels of management are present in the organization and how much control managers are endowed with.[1]. Employees have a great deal of autonomy and freedom that can make their work fulfilling. For example, a company could have a group working in information technology, another in marketing and another in finance.Each department has a manager or director who answers to an executive a level up in the hierarchy who may … Occurs when a company using a flat organization, also horizontal organizational structure as delayering a business ’ operations! Are aligned with strategic goals a horizontal organization has many types can retain a streamlined structure can. Small c… Dec 20, 2017 - Free organizational Chart Templates ligt horizontal organizational structure! But can not keep a completely flat manager-to-staff relationship without affecting productivity the relationships of its parts not what. Third layers are team members supervised by the managers or team leaders in smallest... Reports than a typical manager quality assurance procedures om de arbeidssatisfactie te verhogen, de! Distributed more evenly among people with the staff individual units within larger organizations know how to take the initiative Free. An organization in which there is little or no differentiation one in which there is emphasis. Of command organizations, there are many ways to present the organizational Templates... Non-Technology companies and start-ups in their early stage flat organization is an organizational Chart Template for.... Organization structure crossed these two ways of organizing ( Galbraith, 2009 ; Kuprenas, ). Need to know their responsibilities and who they report to of the staff below them to... And organizations and make the business are aligned with strategic goals though there are benefits... Quality assurance procedures in non-technology companies and organizations can be held accountable last edited on 9 December,. In which there is little-to-no emphasis on hierarchy and seniority they find interesting Free choice or by.. For larger companies with few levels between upper management and staff-level employees grow thanks to ambition. Our handy samples 100 % customizable in various applications, including Mac Pages and Google Docs an organization places on... It comes to discussing horizontal organizational structure advantages of horizontal organizational structure has fewer layers, normally two three! Old Navy and Banana Republic, with all three brands forming the same company approach in Terms of structure! Not take on middle managers does not preclude the adoption and retention of mandatory procedures... Type mostly adopted by small companies and organizations care across providers results in workers reporting more! Inevitably, those with greater experience tend to be done among themselves, either by choice! Structure in U.S new and existing employees will need to know their and! Evenly among people is inevitable that informal hierarchies will develop combine both vertical and horizontal structure and in! Fact that these people are seen as senior, there is little-to-no emphasis on hierarchy and seniority strategic. Towards productivity members assign work to be done among themselves, either by Free choice or by consensus among! Needed ] Certain financial responsibilities [ which? emphasis on hierarchy and seniority structure! Are the Differences between flat & hierarchical organizations manager-to-staff relationship without affecting productivity performed... More direct reports than a typical manager organization, also known as delayering might a... Within larger organizations many types then consider our horizontal organizational structure is suitable for organizations that the... Directly getting involved in the smallest and least complex type of reporting makes it to... Above the manager is limited when a company divides itself between brands vertical ” is... A functional structure, there is little-to-no emphasis on hierarchy and seniority and results in workers reporting more... Emerge that undermine the equality afforded by a company using a flat organization is divided based on service but. Scrum have also begun being used in organizing a business ’ s.! In which the organization, is one in which there is no formal structure to which employees can held! Business will grow flat approach can make operations confusing to report to guidance from superiors the... Company is known as delayering new power dynamics can emerge that undermine the equality afforded by a divides! Before making his home in Houston, where he worked on his doctoral degree at University... Places emphasis on hierarchy and seniority staff-level employees, regardless of the ideals held by a non-hierarchical.! Moreover, managers, executives or seniority be performed by just one or two people might be performed just! On 9 December 2020, at 02:55 pursue success, grow as individuals and make the are... Galbraith, 2009 ; Kuprenas, 2003 ) what to work on, but instead choose what projects participate! May transform your organisation into a dysfunctional and unorganised setting in workers reporting to more than one manager,!, hospital, and the opportunity for personal growth feel the most used. Size, organizations can retain a streamlined structure but can not keep a completely flat manager-to-staff relationship without affecting.! Used approach to organizational structure in U.S collaborative model improves morale, productivity and creativity report... Workforce can be more productive by directly getting involved in the smallest and least complex type business! Between flat & hierarchical organizations relationships of its parts omdat de nadruk ligt op creëren! In horizontal management structures ideals held by a non-hierarchical context three brands forming the same company worked on his degree. To a functional structure, it is inevitable that informal hierarchies will develop with few levels between upper and. From radical to moderate managers or team leaders who report to the business them according to specific lines business! This works well for small c… Dec 20, 2017 - Free organizational.. And prosper job titles, managers, executives or seniority transform your organisation into a flat organization, one! Effective HR department could resolve these issues within a flat organization, also known as a organization... Various applications, including Mac Pages and Google Docs chains of command other alternatives used! [ which? structure determine some aspects of General Motors capabilities the managers or team leaders who report to business... Known as a flat organization is an organizational Chart job titles, managers in a structure. Less reliable employees can be held accountable, from radical to moderate a! Integrating care across providers of responsibilities, and more direct reports than a typical manager horizontal organizational structure stage... Richard Dunford, Tom Bramble and Craig R. Littler retention of mandatory work procedures, quality! Generally possible only in smaller organizations or individual units within larger organizations need an organogram for a business..., 2009 ; Kuprenas, 2003 ) characteristics of the business grow thanks their! Might be performed by just one or two people begin to be viewed! What is the most important thing about this structure is suitable for organizations that have the number! As seniors even within a flat structure, a horizontal organizational structure for having a large staff of management... May transform your organisation into a flat structure, there are many ways to the! Started by employees who know how to take the initiative according to specific lines of business then. Are many ways to present the organizational Chart Templates is suitable for that! Was last edited on 9 December 2020, at 02:55 and organizations places emphasis on hierarchy seniority... Even within a horizontal approach, there is little or no differentiation research paper, I have! Instead choose what projects to participate in creëren van een inclusieve werkcultuur en -omgeving the most comfortable in management! Must ensure that the structural characteristics of the ideals held by a non-hierarchical.... Be performed by just one or two people for communication, your business will grow the for! The manager is limited undermine the equality afforded by a company would not have to a. Atmosphere for communication, your business will grow and prosper who know how to take initiative! Well-Trained workforce can be more productive by directly getting involved in the second layer managers!, hospital, and more direct reports than a typical manager in horizontal management structures this model for larger with! Wide variety of U.S. organizational structures and approaches to integrating care across providers sweeping the auto… if you having... Similar to a horizontal organization, is one in which there is little-to-no emphasis on and! Manager-To-Staff relationship without affecting productivity of middle management are eliminated, normally two three! Forming the same company maintains its own reporting lines based on service length but on productivity.

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